Article 3, Jurisdictional independence, impartiality, and exclusivity

Judges exercising jurisdiction are independent of each other and of any other authority or body, and must act and rule in a fair and impartial manner. In their rulings, they are subject exclusively to the rule of law.

Jurisdictional function is exercised exclusively by the courts established by law. No other State body, person or group of persons may exercise the jurisdictional function, hear pending cases, modify the grounds or content of judicial resolutions, or reopen proceedings concluded.

Judges are not allowed to perform any other duty or employment, with the exception of academic activities under terms established by law.

Judges shall exclusively exercise jurisdictional functions and are not allowed to perform any administrative or legislative function.

Judges are not allowed to be members of political parties.